Written in EnglishRead online
|Statement||by W.F. Von Oettingen ... D.D. Donahue ... R.K. Snyder ... [and others] Prepared by direction of the surgeon general.|
|Series||Public health bulletin,, no. 285|
|Contributions||Donahue, Dennis Daniel., Snyder, Roy Kenneth, 1906-, Industrial Hygiene Research Laboratory (U.S.)|
|LC Classifications||RA1242.T7 V74|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||ii, 78 p. incl. tables, diagrs.|
|Number of Pages||78|
|LC Control Number||45035393|
Download Experimental studies on the toxicity and potential dangers of trinitrotoluene (TNT)
A series of studies were undertaken to unravel, if possible, the mysteries underlying the toxicity of trinitrotoluene, TNT; but, first, a new method was devised for detecting TNT and its related chemicals, when present in the urine, by using the spectrophoto-meter, modified for clinical use, with a set of artificial standards for by: 4.
Trinitrotoluene has toxicity of a low order, but its manufacture and handling are not without risk to the health of the workers concerned. This series of studies raises a number of questions with respect to these hazards and brings their answers up to date by means of observations on animals and on man.
Get this from a library. Experimental studies on the toxicity and potential dangers of trinitrotoluene (TNT). [W F Von Oettingen; Dennis Daniel Donahue; Roy Kenneth Snyder; Industrial Hygiene Research Laboratory (U.S.);].
Several epidemiological studies and animal experiments showed that 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a commonly used explosive, induced reproductive toxicity. To clarify whether the toxicity results from the interference of endocrine systems or direct damage to reproductive organs, we examined the effects of TNT on the male reproductive system in Cited by: Few studies have determined the toxicity and bioaccumulation potential of explosive compounds in freshwater fish.
In the present study, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to a range. Several epidemiological studies and animal experiments showed that 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a commonly used explosive, induced reproductive toxicity.
Determination of the chronic mammalian toxicological effects Experimental studies on the toxicity and potential dangers of trinitrotoluene book TNT (Twenty-four month chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study of trinitrotoluene (TNT) in B6C3F 1 hybrid mice).
Final Report - Phase IV. Volume 1. ITT Research Institute, Project No. L, Study No. 11, Chicago, IL. DAMDC AD Goodwin, J. S.C. Gad, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Abstract. Trinitrotoluene (TNT) () is used as a high explosive for military and industrial applications.
It is also an intermediate in the production of dyes and photographic chemicals. Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact are possible routes of exposure. A 14‐d subacute study followed in which male lizards were orally dosed with TNT (corn oil) at 0, 33, 66,and 1, mg/kg of body weight each day.
Clinical signs of toxicity, while similar to the LD50 study, were more subtle and noted in lizards receiving TNT amounts of at least 66 mg/kg/d.
The Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of (Proposit California Health and Safety Code et seq.) requires that the Governor cause to be published a list of those chemicals “known to the state” to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
Similar effects on the blood and the liver have been observed in animals that either breathed or were fed 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. In addition, studies show that animals force- fed 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene for an intermediate-duration (from 15ï¿½ days) may have enlargement of the spleen and other harmful effects on the immune system.
The studies utilized indicate a moderate toxicity of chlordane, with effects on reproduction in mammals, birds, and reptiles. Based upon the available data in the mammalian studies, a chronic no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and low observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) were determined to be and 21 milligrams per kilogram per day.
) and low experimental bioconcentration factor, TNT is not expected to bioconcentrate to high levels in the tissues of exposed aquatic organisms and plants (ATSDR ; HSDB ).
What are the routes of exposure and the health effects of TNT. The toxicity of TNT to humans was well documented in the th.
century, with more than. Toxicity of the explosives 2,4,6‐trinitrotoluene, hexahydro‐1,3,5‐trinitro‐1,3,5‐triazine, and octahydro‐1,3,5,7‐tetranitro‐1,3,5,7‐tetrazocine in sediments to Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca: Low‐dose hormesis and high‐dose mortality.
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene is a yellow, odorless solid that does not occur naturally in the environment. It is commonly known as TNT and is an explosive used in military shells, bombs, and grenades, in industrial uses, and in underwater blasting. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene production in the United States occurs solely at military arsenals.
The short‐term oral toxicity of 2,4,6‐trinitrotoluene (α‐TNT) was determined in dogs, rats, and mice. Single‐dose oral LD50s for α‐TNT in corn oil were and mg/kg in male and female rats, respectively, and mg/kg in both male and female mice. Toxicity studies in the animal models are done to determine the dose level recommended for the treatment of disease as drug.
This guideline enables the characterization of adverse effects following repeated daily inhalation exposure to a test.
This chapter includes oral and dermal toxicity studies which are discussed as per OECD guidelines. Bioavailability and Toxicity of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Sediments EPA Grant Number: U Title: Bioavailability and Toxicity of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Sediments Investigators: Conder, Michael J.
Institution: University of North Texas EPA Project Officer: Lee, Sonja Project Period: January 1, through January 1, Project Amount: $87, This book illustrates the chemistry, toxicology, and health effects of arsenic using novel modeling techniques, case studies, experimental data, and future perspectives.
• Covers exposure sources, health risks, and mechanisms of one of the most toxic minerals in the world. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the major explosive ingredient in ammunition dumped into lakes and sea after World War II. The aim of the present field study was to study the fate and effect of TNT and its degradation products from dumped ammunition.
Artillery shells were cleaved longitudinally to expose TNT and placed in open boxes filled with sediment, and then placed at the sea bottom.
Toxicity andMutagenicity of2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene andIts Microbial Metabolites WILLIAM D. WON,* LOUIS H. DiSALVO, AND JAMES NG NavalBiomedicalResearch Laboratory, SchoolofPublicHealth, University ofCalifornia, Berkeley, California Received for publication 8 December TNT(2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) ofexplosive grade is highlytoxic to.
The high explosive nitroaromatic 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) is less shock sensitive than 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and is proposed as a TNT replacement for melt-cast formulations. Before using DNAN in munitions and potentially leading to environmental impact, the present study examines the ecotoxicity of DNAN using selected organisms.
Characterization of these potential effects on reproduction are now typically assessed using the Modified One-Generation study design.
Modified One-Generation Studies Historically, NTP evaluated the potential for a substance to cause reproductive harm via a multigenerational reproduction experimental design.
This chemical did not bloconcen- trate significantly In this preliminary study. Effects on Flora. TOXICITY — The effect of 2,4,6-trlnltrotoluene on algal growth was studied by Smock et al. One series of tests was con- ducted using the green alga, S.
capMcornutum. This study could be required to more fully assess the manifestations of developmental toxicity, especially potential deficits in function or developmental neurotoxicity. The parameters that need to be studied in a postnatal study depend on the effects seen in the prenatal study.
Guidelines are presently being developed by EPA. Sufficient Experimental Animal Evidence or Limited Human Data: This category includes data from experimental-animal studies or limited human data that provide convincing evidence for the scientific community to judge whether the potential for developmental toxicity exists.
The minimal evidence necessary to judge that a potential hazard exists. examination of adverse effects that may occur on first exposure to a single dose of a substance (acute toxicity studies), studies that seek to assess the potential of substances to interact with genetic material (genotoxicity), tests that aim to identify whether toxicity occurs after continuous exposure to a substance (repeated-dose toxicity.
LD 50 /LC A common measure of acute toxicity is the lethal dose (LD 50) or lethal concentration (LC 50) that causes death (resulting from a single or limited exposure) in 50 percent of the treated 50 is generally expressed as the dose in milligrams (mg) of chemical per kilogram (kg) of body weight.
LC 50 is often expressed as mg of chemical per volume (e.g., liter (L)) of medium. with the effects, sometimes fatal, of exposure to asbestos (Tweedale ).
Both silica and asbestos have some toxic features that they do not share with almost any other mineral dust. In spite of numerous experimental studies in the field, such features and their mechanisms of. Box 3. Effects observed in experiments with cells (in vitro studies) 22 Box 4.
Effects observed in human experimental studies 24 Box 5. Effects observed in animal experimental studies 26 Box 6. Reported adverse events 28 Box 7.
Findings from studies on passive vaping 30 Box 8. Higher risk as identified in studies 36 Box 9. To date, a single feeding study has evaluated the responses of oral TNT exposure to birds with equivocal results regarding sublethal effects. The present study followed a controlled dosing regime comprising four dose groups and a control (,70, 20, and 0 mg TNT/kg body weight [bw]-day) in the common pigeon (Columba livia) for 60 days.
Subchronic toxicity studies usually cannot determine the carcinogenic potential of a test substance. Guidance specific to subchronic toxicity studies with non-rodents is presented in chapter Print book: National government publication: EnglishView all editions and formats: Rating: (not yet rated) 0 with reviews - Be the first.
Subjects: Toluene -- Toxicology. Toluene -- Physiological effect. Toluene -- toxicity. More like this: Similar Items. In a study done on workers in TB MED China, there was a positive correlation between the prevalence of cataracts and the duration of exposure.
(See para c.) d. Long-term effects. More long-term studies may be necessary to determine if there are chronic medical effects of long-term/low-dose exposure to TNT in humans.
TOXICITY STUDIES - INTRODUCTION • Toxicology classically has been defined as the study of poisons & concerned with the adverse effects of xenobiotics.
• The US-FDA states that it is essential to screen new molecules for pharmacological activity and toxicity potential in animals (21CFR Part ). • At the end of the study, the. Trinitrotoluene (/ ˌ t r aɪ ˌ n aɪ t r oʊ ˈ t ɒ lj u iː n /; TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C 6 H 2 (NO 2) 3 CH yellow solid is sometimes used as a reagent in chemical synthesis, but it is best known as an explosive material with convenient handling properties.
The explosive yield of TNT is considered to be the standard. The potential toxicity should be evaluated further by two subchronic oral toxicity tests, one in a rodent and one in a nonrodent species to provide an adequate basis for determining an ADI and to help determine the need for longer term or specialized toxicity tests (e.g.
metabolism studies, teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity, neurotoxicity. Nutraceuticals: Efficacy, Safety and Toxicity brings together all current knowledge regarding nutraceuticals and their potential toxic effects as written by the scientists at the forefront of their study.
Users will find an introduction to nutraceuticals, herbal medicines, ayurvedic medicines, prebiotics, probiotics, and adaptogens, along with their use and specific applications. Cell culture toxicity tests indicate that S 2 F 10 is “literally orders of magnitude more toxic than other SF 6 breakdown products in our cell culture systems” .
Extensive animal toxicology studies were conducted to evaluate S 2 F 10 as a candidate warfare agent. Exposure to 5% concentrations resulted in animal death within a few.
Basis for revised IDLH: No inhalation toxicity data are available on which to base an IDLH for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. Therefore, the revised IDLH for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene is mg/m 3 based on acute oral toxicity data in humans [Deichmann and Gerarde ] and animals [Dilley et al.
; MRC ]. Studies of the acute toxicity of TNT to aquatic organisms indicate that LC/sub 50/ values range from to mg/L for invertebrates in hr static tests, and from to .General toxicity study designs Jan Willem van der Laan Section on Safety of Medicines and Teratology Studies on rats/rabbits →effects characteristic to the treatment induced secondary hypoglycaemia Studies on rats →no reproductive toxicity.
Data scarce, potential risk for human unknown-Others. Antithrombic agents - studies on rats.The book Our Stolen Future was important because it _____. was the first book to dispute claims in Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring was the first book that discussed environmental problems with DDT was the first book that discussed water pollution problems in Lake Apopka is credited with starting the environmental movement in the United States.